by的用法总结-by作为时间介词的用法-by the end of用法详解详细信息

by

      by的用法归纳

      1.by+地点名词。表方位,意为:“在…旁边”。

      2.by+时间名词。意为:“到…时(已发生某事),此时谓语多用完成时;最晚、不迟于…,在…之前”。

      3.by+v.-ing结构。意为“通过……,以……的方式”。

      4.by+人称代词宾格,意为“经过”。

      5.by+人,意为“被;由”。

      6.by+地点或工具等具体名词。表路线、途径,意为:“通过(某物、某地),取道…”。

      7.by的常用短语

      Study by heart 用心学

      little by little 渐渐地

      one by one 逐一

      by chance 碰巧,偶然

      by the river 在河边

      by mistake 错误地

      by nature 天生的

      by oneself 亲自

      介词 by 表示“由……写(作、著)”等的用法说明

      用法一:介词 by 表示“由……写(作、著)”,可视为 written by 之省略。又如:

      It’s a play (written) by Shakespeare. 那是莎士比亚(写)的剧本。

      I haven’t read any books by Tolstoy. 我没看过托尔斯泰的书。

      She recited a poem by Goethe. 她朗诵了歌德的一首诗。

      I was reading a novel by Hemingway. 我在看一本海明威的小说。

      That reminded her of a play by Tchekov. 这使她想起契诃夫的一个剧本。

      I would like to borrow a copy of “David Copperfield” by Dickens. 我想借一本狄更斯的《大卫·科波菲尔》。

      用法二:如果是针对画作而言,则可视为 painted by 之省略。如:

      Is this a painting by Picasso? 这是毕加索的画吗?

      Are these drawings by Goya? 这些是戈雅的画吗?

      Were there many pictures by British artists? 英国画家的作品多吗?

      Have you seen the exhibition of paintings by Picasso? 你参观过毕加索的画展吗?

      My grandfather had among his possessions a portrait by Matisse. 我祖父有一幅马蒂斯画的肖像画。

      用法三:如果是针对曲作而言,则可视为 composed by 之省略。如:

      He played us a piece by Chopin. 他给我们演奏了萧邦的一首乐曲。

      The next selection is by Mozart. 下面的乐章选自莫扎特的作品。

      The child stumbled through a piece by Chopin. 那孩子演奏萧邦的曲子很不流畅。

      She ended her concert with three songs by Schubert. 她唱了舒伯特的3首歌来结束她的音乐会。

      介词by的用法归纳

      一、by+地点名词。表方位,意为:“在…旁边”。如:by the lake/river/tree/window/door等。

      She searched the top of the hill and stopped to rest on a big rock by the side of the path.(NMET90)她搜索了山顶,然后停下来在路边的一块大石头上休息。

      After supper she would sit down by the fire,sometimes for as long as an hour,thinking of her young and happy days.(2003上海·春)晚饭后,她常坐在火旁,有时长达一个小时地回忆她那青春、快乐的年代。

      注:有时可表:“从…旁经过”,多与动词go/walk/pass等连用。

      As we boys were rushing towards the playground,Jim slipped by the table.(NMET92完形)当我们这些男生冲向操场时,吉姆从桌旁溜过。

      二、by+时间名词。意为:“到…时(已发生某事),此时谓语多用完成时;最晚、不迟于…,在…之前”。如:by now/then/this time/next Friday/the end of/three o`clock等。

      By the end of last year,another new gymnasium had been completed.(2003上海·春)到去年年底,又有一座新体育馆峻工了。

      The train leaves at 6:00 pm.So I have to be at the station by 5:40 pm at the latest.(NMET97)火车下午六点开,所以最晚我得五点四十赶到车站。

      三、by+名词。可用来表方法、方式、手段等。

      1、by+the+可数的时间、长度、重量等名词。意为:“按…计算,按…买(卖)”。如:by the pound/ton/yard/meter/dozen/bale/day/month等。

      Cleaning women in big cities usually get paid by the hour.(NMET98)城市里的女清洁工通常按小时获得报酬。

      宜城教育资源网www.ychedu.com